TRADING

General

(NEW) Regulation of Inter-dealer Quotation Systems

FINRA has adopted new Rule 6439 (Requirements for Member Inter-Dealer Quotation Systems), which implements additional requirements for firms that operate systems that regularly disseminate the quotations of identified broker-dealers in OTC Equity Securities (each an “inter-dealer quotation system” or “IDQS”). Rule 6439 will become effective on October 1, 2021, except for paragraph (d)(1)(B), which relates to the collection of order-level information. The effective date for this paragraph will be announced at a later date to better coordinate, and avoid regulatory duplication, with reporting obligations to the Consolidated Audit Trail (CAT) under Rule 6830 (Industry Member Data Reporting).

FINRA also is deleting the Rule 6500 Series and other rules related to the OTC Bulletin Board (OTCBB) – a FINRA-operated inter-dealer quotation system – and ceasing its operation. The permanent closure of the OTCBB will not occur prior to October 1, 2021. FINRA will announce the effective date of the deletion of the OTCBB-related rules and its closure in a separate communication.

FINRA Regulatory Notice 21-28 (August 6, 2021): FINRA Adopts Rule 6439 Governing the Operation of Inter-Dealer Quotation Systems and Announces Closure of the OTC Bulletin Board

 

(NEW) Best Execution and Payment for Order Flow

FINRA issued this Notice to remind member firms of longstanding Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and FINRA rules and guidance concerning best execution and payment for order flow, which the SEC has defined very broadly to refer to a wide range of practices including monetary payments and discounts, rebates, or other fee reductions or credits. Under these rules and guidance, member firms may not let payment for order flow interfere with their duty of best execution


FINRA Regulatory Notice 21-23 (June 23, 2021): FINRA Reminds Firms of Requirements Concerning Best Execution and Payment for Order Flow

 

Customer Order Handling, Margin and Liquidity

FINRA issued this Notice to remind member firms of their obligations during extreme market conditions with respect to handling customer orders, maintaining appropriate margin requirements and effectively managing their liquidity.

FINRA Regulatory Notice 21-12 (March 18, 2021): FINRA Reminds Member Firms of Their Obligations Regarding Customer Order Handling, Margin Requirements and Effective Liquidity Management Practices During Extreme Market Conditions

 

Amendments to NYSE Rule 7.12 Concerning the Resumption of Trading Following a Level 3 Market-Wide Circuit Breaker

Upon feedback from industry participants, the Exchange has been working with other national securities exchanges and FINRA to establish a standardized approach for resuming trading in all NMS Stocks following a Level 3 halt. The proposed approach would allow for the opening of all securities the next trading day after a Level 3 halt as a regular trading day, and is designed to ensure that Level 3 MWCB events are handled in a more consistent manner that is transparent for market participants. As proposed, a Level 3 halt would end at the end of the trading day on which it is declared. This proposed change would allow for next-day trading to resume in all NMS Stocks no differently from any other trading day. In other words, an exchange could resume trading in any security when it first begins trading under its rules and would not need to wait for the primary listing market to re-open trading in a security before it could start trading such security. Accordingly, under the proposal, the Exchange could begin trading all UTP Securities at the beginning of the Exchange’s Early Trading Session at 7:00 a.m. ET, regardless of whether the primary listing markets for those securities have actually opened.

Securities Exchange Act Release No. 34-88402 (March 17, 2020), 85 FR 16436 (March 23, 2020) (File No. SR-NYSE-2020-20): Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change Amending Rule 7.12 Concerning the Resumption of Trade Following a Level 3 Market-Wide Circuit Breaker Halt

 

Limit Up/Limit Down Plan Program

On May 31, 2012, the SEC approved the NMS Plan to Address Extraordinary Market Volatility (Plan), which was filed by FINRA and the other SROs and is designed to address the type of sudden price movements that the market experienced on the afternoon of May 6, 2010. The Plan provides for a market-wide limit up and limit down (LULD) mechanism to prevent trades in NMS stocks from occurring outside of specified price bands, coupled with trading pauses to accommodate more fundamental price moves. The Plan is designed, among other things, to protect investors and promote fair and orderly markets. 

• FINRA Alert on Limit Up/Limit Down (LULD) Plan

FINRA Regulatory Notice 16-26 (July 2016):  FINRA Adopts Amendments Relating to the Regulation NMS Plans to Address Extraordinary Market Volitality

• FINRA has published two charts to assist members in identifying the types of transactions that are excluded from the price bands under the LULD Plan and FAQs to provide guidance on LULD

The Participants filed the Plan to Address Extraordinary Market Volatility (the “Limit Up-Limit Down Plan” or the “Plan”) with the Commission on April 5, 2011 to create a market-wide limit up-limit down mechanism intended to address extraordinary market volatility in NMS Stocks, as defined in Rule 600(b)(47) of Regulation NMS under the Exchange Act. The Plan sets forth procedures that provide for market-wide limit up-limit down requirements to prevent trades in individual NMS Stocks from occurring outside of the specified Price Bands. These limit up-limit down requirements are coupled with Trading Pauses, as defined in Section I(Y) of the Plan, to accommodate more fundamental price moves. In particular, the Participants adopted this Plan to address extraordinary volatility in the securities markets, i.e., significant fluctuations in individual securities’ prices over a short period of time, such as those experienced during the “Flash Crash” on the afternoon of May 6, 2010. The Plan was originally approved on a pilot basis to allow the public, the Participants, and the Commission to assess the operation of the Plan and whether the Plan should be modified prior to consideration of approval on a permanent basis. The Commission recently approved an amendment to the Plan to allow the Plan to operate on a permanent basis.

Securities Exchange Act Release No. 85723 (April 25, 2019), 84 FR 18618 (May 1, 2019) (File No. SR-NYSENAT-2019-10): Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change to Amend Rule 7.11, Limit Up-Limit Down Plan and Trading Pauses in Individual Securities Due to Extraordinary Market Volatility

Supervision

Publication or Submission of Quotes Without Specific Information

The SEC adopted amendments to Rule 15c2-11 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, which governs the publication of quotations for securities in a quotation medium other than a national securities exchange, i.e., over-the-counter (“OTC”) securities. The amendments are designed to modernize the Rule, promote investor protection, and curb incidents of fraud and manipulation by, among other things: requiring information about issuers to be current and publicly available for broker-dealers to quote their securities in the OTC market; narrowing reliance on certain exceptions from the Rule’s requirements, including the piggyback exception; adding new exceptions for the quotations of securities that may be less susceptible to fraud and manipulation; removing obsolete provisions; adding new definitions; and making technical amendments. The effective date was December 28, 2020.

SEC Release No. 33-10842 (September 16, 2020)85 FR 68124 (October 27, 2020): Publication or Submission of Quotations Without Specified Information (Final Rule)

 

Prohibitions and Restrictions on Proprietary Trading and Certain Interests in, and Relationships With, Hedge Funds and Private Equity Funds

The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC), Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (Board), Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), SEC, and Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) are adopting amendments to the regulations implementing section 13 of the Bank Holding Company Act (BHCA Act). Section 13 contains certain restrictions on the ability of a banking entity and nonbank financial company supervised by the Board to engage in proprietary trading and have certain interests in, or relationships with, a hedge fund or private equity fund. These final amendments are intended to improve and streamline the regulations implementing section 13 of the BHC Act by modifying and clarifying requirements related to the covered fund provisions of the rules. 

The effective date for amendatory instructions 1 through 14 (OCC), 16 through 29 (Board), 31 through 44 (FDIC), and 46 through 58 (CFTC) is January 1, 2020; the effective date for amendatory instructions 60 through 73 (SEC) is January 13, 2020; and the effective date for the addition of appendices Z at amendatory instructions 15 (OCC), 30 (Board), and 45 (FDIC) is January 1, 2020, through December 31, 2020, except for amendatory instruction 74 (SEC), which is effective January 13, 2020, through December 31, 2020.

SEC Release No. BHCA-9 (June 25, 2020), 85 FR 46422 (July 31, 2020): Prohibitions and Restrictions on Proprietary Trading and Certain Interests in, and Relationships With, Hedge Funds and Private Equity Funds (Final Rule)

SEC Release No. BHCA-7 (September 18, 2019), 84 FR 61974 (November 14, 2019): Prohibitions and Restrictions on Proprietary Trading and Certain Interests in, and Relationships With, Hedge Funds and Private Equity Funds (Final Rule)

 

ATS Supervision Obligations

FINRA issued this Notice to remind Alternative Trading Systems (ATSs) of their supervision obligations. As registered broker-dealers and FINRA members, ATSs—like other broker-dealer trading platforms—are required to maintain supervisory systems that are reasonably designed to achieve compliance with applicable securities laws and regulations, and with applicable FINRA rules, including, for example, rules on disruptive or manipulative quoting and trading activity.

FINRA Regulatory Notice 18-25 (August 13, 2018): FINRA Reminds Alternative Trading Systems of Their Obligations to Supervise Activity on Their Platforms

 

Cross Market Equities Supervision: Potential Manipulation Report

This report assists firms with monitoring their supervision for trading behaviors that may be designed to manipulate the market by displaying exceptions around two behaviors—layering and spoofing—concerns highlighted in FINRA’s 2016 Regulatory Examination Priorities Letter.

• Cross Market Equities Supervision Video

 

Guidance on Effective Supervision and Control Practices for Firms Engaging in Algorithmic Trading Strategies

As algorithmic trading strategies, including high frequency trading strategies, have grown to compose a substantial portion of activity on U.S. securities markets, the potential for these strategies to adversely impact market and firm stability has likewise grown. Although a reasonable supervision and control program may not foresee every potential failure or prevent every undesirable consequence, in an effort to reduce the future occurrence of such potential issues, FINRA is provided guidance on effective supervision and control practices for member firms and market participants that use algorithmic strategies. These effective practices are focused on five general areas: General Risk Assessment and Response; Software/Code Development and Implementation; Software Testing and System Validation; Trading Systems; and Compliance.

FINRA Regulatory Notice 15-09 (March 2015): Equity Trading Initiatives: Supervision and Control Practices for Algorithmic Trading Strategies